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Production of pig iron. Blast-furnace production of pig iron. The technology of production of pig iron. Iron making process.

Iron - an alloy of iron and carbon with the associated elements (carbon content more than 2.14%). For the production of pig iron in blast furnaces use iron ore, fuel and fluxes.

For iron ore include:

magnetite (Fe3O4) with an iron content of 55 ... 60% deposit - Sokolovsky, the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA);

hematite (Fe2O3) with an iron content of 55 ... 60% deposit - Krivoy Rog, the KMA;

limonite (iron oxide hydrates 2Fe2O3 * 3H2O and Fe2O3 * H2O) c iron content 37 ... 55% - Kerch.

Manganese ore used for smelting an iron alloy with manganese - ferromanganese (10 ... 82% Mn), as well as pig iron, containing up to 1% manganese. Marganets ores contained in the form of oxides and carbonates: MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn3O4, and MnCO3 al.

Chrome ore used to produce ferrochrome, chromium metal and refractory materials - hromomagnezitov.

The fuel for blast furnace coke is possible partial replacement of gas with fuel oil.

Flux is limestone or dolomitic limestone CaCO3 containing CaCO3 and MgCO3, because the slag should include basic oxides (CaC, MgO), which are needed to remove sulfur from metal.

Preparation of ores for blast furnace is carried out to improve the performance of the blast furnace, reducing coke consumption and improve the quality of pig iron. Method of preparation depends on the quality of the ore.

Crushing and screening ore particle size are used for pieces of optimum value, performed by means of crushers and classifiers.

Ore is based on the difference in the physical properties of minerals, included in its composition:

Flushing - separation of solid components from the empty loose rock.

Gravity (jigging) - separation of ore from the gangue by passing a jet of water through the bottom of the vibrating sieve: waste rock is forced into the upper layer and is carried away by water, and ore minerals are omitted.

Magnetic separation - chopped ore is subjected to the action of a magnet attracting iron minerals and separating them from the gangue.

Okuskovyvanie produce concentrates for processing lumpy materials required size. Two methods are used okuskovyvaniya: agglomeration and sloshing.

When sintering charge consisting of iron ore (40 ... 50%), limestone (15 ... 20%), return fine agglomerates (20 ... 30%), coke breeze (4 ... 6%), moisture (6 ... 9%) sintered at a sintering machine at 1300 ... 1500 0C. During sintering of ore removed harmful impurities (sulfur, arsenic), carbonates decompose and turns lumpy porous fluxed sinter.

When rounding the charge of the crushed concentrate, flux, fuel handling and moisturize in rotating drums, it takes the form of beads, pellets with a diameter of 30 mm. They are dried and calcined at a temperature of 1200 ... 1350 0C.

The use of sinter and pellets eliminates the separate supply of flux, limestone in a blast furnace during smelting.